This situation exists despite the existence of cost-effective interventions for addressing the targeted health problems. It is increasingly assumed that the missing link has been ineffective use of the interventions and the weakness of health systems that are unable to scale up implementation of the interventions. Consequently, a health systems review was conducted in five countries of sub- Saharan Africa, namely Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Uganda and Zambia.
Self-improvement Upward and downward social comparisons[ edit ] Wills introduced the concept of downward comparison in When a person looks to another individual or group that they consider to be worse off than themselves in order to feel better about their self or personal situation, they are making a downward social comparison.
Research has suggested that social comparisons with others who are better off or superior, or upward comparisons, can lower self-regard,  whereas downward comparisons can elevate self-regard. Upward social comparisons are made to self-evaluate and self-improve in the hopes that self-enhancement will also occur.
In an upward social comparison, people want to believe themselves to be part of the elite or superior, and make comparisons highlighting the similarities between themselves and the comparison group, unlike a downward social comparison, where similarities between individuals or groups are disassociated.
In simple terms, downward social comparisons are more likely to make us feel better about ourselves, while upward social comparisons are more likely to motivate us to achieve more A comparison of status and role reach higher.
Moderators of social comparison[ edit ] Aspinwall and Taylor looked at mood, self-esteem, and threat as moderators that drive individuals to choose to make upward or downward social comparisons.
High self-esteem and social comparison[ edit ] Aspinwall and Taylor found that upward social comparisons were good in circumstances where the individuals making the comparisons had high self-esteem, because these types of comparisons provided them with more motivation and hope than downward social comparisons.
Low self-esteem and social comparison[ edit ] However, people with low self-esteem or people who are experiencing some sort of threat in their life such as doing poorly in school, or suffering from an illness tend to favor downward comparisons over upward comparisons.
People with low self-esteem and negative affect improve their mood by making downward comparisons.
Their mood does not improve as much as it would if they had high self-esteem. Even for people with low self-esteem, these downward social comparisons do improve their negative mood and allow them to feel hope and motivation for their future.
In addition, both individuals with high self-esteem and low self-esteem who are in a positive mood elevate their mood further by making upward comparisons. However, for those who have recently experienced a threat to their self-esteem or a setback in their life, making upward social comparisons instead of downward social comparisons results in a more negative affect.
Self-esteem and existence of a threat or setback in an individual's life are two moderators of their response to upward or downward comparisons. Competitiveness[ edit ] Because individuals are driven upwards in the case of abilities, social comparisons can drive competition among peers.
Social status[ edit ] Competitiveness resulting from social comparisons may be greater in relation to higher social status because individuals with more status have more to lose.
In one study, students in a classroom were presented with a bonus point program where, based on chance, the grades for some students would increase and the grades for others would remain the same.
Despite the fact that students could not lose by this program, higher-status individuals were more likely to object to the program, and more likely to report a perceived distributive injustice.
It was suggested that this was a cognitive manifestation of an aversion to downward mobilitywhich has more psychological significance when an individual has more status. When the only meaningful standard is the top, then high-ranking individuals are most competitive with their peers, and individuals at low and intermediate ranks are equally competitive.
However, when both high and low rankings hold significance, then individuals at high and low ranks are equally competitive, and are both more competitive than individuals at intermediate ranks.
A self-evaluation maintenance SEM model of social behavior focuses on the consequences of another person's outstanding performance on one's own self-evaluation.
It sketches out some conditions under which the other's good performance bolsters self-evaluation, i. The model proposes that if a person is successful or familiar with a task, then he or she would also be successful at a new similar task.
The proxy is evaluated based on ability and is concerned with the question "Can I do X? The opinion of the comparer and whether the proxy exerted maximum effort on a preliminary task are variables influencing his or her opinion. In the Triadic Model the most meaningful comparisons are with a person who has already experienced a proxy and exhibits consistency in related attributes or past preferences.
One theory is developed around motivation and the factors that influence the type of social comparison information people seek from their environment and the second is about self-evaluation and the factors that influence the effects of social comparisons on the judgments of self.
Explaining that the self is conceived as interrelated conceptions accessible depending upon current judgment context  and taking a cue from Social Cognitive Theorythis model examines the Assimilation effect and distinguishes three classes of working Self-concept ideas: Media influence[ edit ] The media has been found to play a large role in social comparisons.
Researchers examining the social effects of the media have used social comparison theory have found that in most cases women tend to engage in upward social comparisons with a target other, which results in more negative feelings about the self. The majority of women have a daily opportunity to make upward comparison by measuring themselves against some form of societal ideal.
Social comparisons have become a relevant mechanism for learning about the appearance-related social expectations among peers and for evaluating the self in terms of those standards" Jones,P. Although men do make upward comparisons, research finds that more women make upward comparisons and are comparing themselves with unrealistically high standards presented in the media.
In recent years, social media platforms such as Facebook and Instagram have made this more widespread, since social media makes it easier to compare yourself to the "ideal".Twice annually, Coordinators from Counties and Tribes developing or sustaining CST initiatives meet for a business and networking meeting.
Representation is expected from counties and tribes receiving CST funding. Salary comparison tools help you provide employees with fair, competitive compensation. Here are the 5 best tools with cost and features explained.
The role of dissonance, social comparison, and marital status in thinking about divorce The role of dissonance, social comparison, and marital status in thinking about divorce Daniel R. Stalder University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, USA.
The role of dissonance, social comparison, . Social status, also called status, the relative rank that an individual holds, with attendant rights, duties, and lifestyle, in a social hierarchy based upon honour or plombier-nemours.com may be ascribed—that is, assigned to individuals at birth without reference to any innate abilities—or achieved, requiring special qualities and gained through competition and .
The legacies of Nelson Mandela and Mahatma Gandhi transcend time, in terms of the impacts they each had on civil rights and equality.
They were men of different times, yet they drew upon similar principles in their quests to help humanity. Upward and downward comparison in the intermediate-status group: The role of social stratification stability Article in British Journal of Social Psychology 51(2) · August with 26 Reads.