Leif Eriksson in or shortly after landed an may reasonably be called the first European discoverer. He is responsible for the name Vinland, though quite what partof NA it applies to is open to debate.
Known history The last remnant of old ownership marks The Vinland Map first came to light in three years before the discovery of the Norse site at L'Anse aux Meadows inbound in a slim volume with a short medieval text called the Hystoria Tartarorum usually called in English the Tartar Relationand was unsuccessfully offered to the British Museum by London book dealer Irving Davis on behalf of a Spanish-Italian dealer named Enzo Ferrajoli de Ry.
Witten IIwho offered it to his alma mater, Yale University. It was initially treated with suspicion, partly because wormholes in the Map and the Relation did not match.
In springhowever, Witten's friend Thomas Marston, a Yale librarian, acquired from London book dealer Irving Davis a dilapidated medieval copy of volume 3 of Vincent of Beauvais 's encyclopedic Speculum historiale "Historical Mirror"which turned out, amazingly, to be the missing link; the wormholes showing that it had formerly had the Map at its beginning and the Relation at its end.
All traces of former ownership marks, except for a small part of a bright pink stamp which overlapped the writing on folio of the Speculum, had been removed, perhaps to avoid tax liability for the former owner although as historian Kirsten Seaver noted many years later, stamps on random book pages indicate institutional, not private ownership .
Recognizing its potential importance as the earliest map to show America, Mellon insisted that its existence be kept secret A study on the controversial and mysterious vinland map a scholarly book had been written about it. Even the three authors of the book were chosen from among the small number of people who had seen the Map before Mellon bought it—two British Museum curators and Marston.
Only one of them, Dr. Raleigh Ashlin Skeltonkeeper of the Museum's map collection, had significant expertise relevant to the problems posed by the Map his colleague George Painterthe first person to whom Davis had shown the map inwas brought in for the transcription and translation of the Relation and the secrecy almost completely ruled out consultation with specialists.
The book was published, and the Map revealed to the world, the day before Columbus Day Many academic reviewers of the book took the opportunity to point out evidence that the Map was likely to be a fake, so a year later, a Vinland Map Conference was held at the Smithsonian Institutionduring which further significant questions were asked, particularly of Witten, who gave very straightforward and helpful answers; but, the proceedings were not published for another five years.
The unstippled area at the northern tip represents land not surveyed until after There were a number of questions about the actual content of the map.
Witten had pointed out that it bore strong resemblances to a map made in the s by Italian mariner Andrea Biancobut others found some of the similarities and differences very strange—the Map cuts off Africa where Bianco's map has a page fold, but distorts shapes, and includes major revisions in the far east and west.
The most surprising revision is that, unlike, for example, the famous Cantino World Mapthe Vinland Map depicts Greenland as an island, remarkably close to the correct shape and orientation while Norwayof which Greenland was just a colony, is wildly inaccurate although contemporary Scandinavian accounts—including the work of Claudius Clavus in the s—depict Greenland as a peninsula joined to northern Russia.
For practical purposes, Arctic sea ice may have made this description true, and Greenland is not known to have been successfully circumnavigated until the 20th century.
Skelton wondered also whether the revisions in the far east were meant to represent Japan —they seem to show not only Honshubut also Hokkaido and Sakhalinomitted even from Oriental maps in the 15th century.
In addition, the text uses a Latin form of Leifr Eiriksson 's name "Erissonius" more consistent with 17th-century norms and with transmission through a French or Italian source.
Another point calling the map's authenticity into question was raised at the Conference: It seemed that either Jelic had seen the Vinland Map and promised not to reveal its existence keeping the promise so rigidly that he never mentioned any of the other new historical information on the mapor that he had invented the phrase as a scholarly description, and the Vinland Map creator copied him.
Handwriting experts at the Conference tended to disagree with Witten's assessment that the Map captions had been written by the same person as the Speculum and Relation texts. This had also been a major reason why the British Museum had rejected the Map inthe Keeper of Manuscripts having detected elements of handwriting style not developed until the nineteenth century.
Skelton's scientific colleagues at the British Museum made a short preliminary examination in and found that: They also confirmed that the ink contained only trace amounts of iron, and that the black line remnants were on top of the yellow, indicating that they were not the remains of a penciled guide-line, as the British Museum staff had speculated.
Attempting to reconcile the conflicting results, the Cahill team suggested that the high concentrations found by McCrone were due to a combination of contamination from modern dust, and poor sample selection i.
Revisiting his notes in to draft a detailed reply to the abbreviated public version of Cahill's report, Walter McCrone chose the wrong sample to illustrate a "typical" black ink particle, selecting one which had been found only loosely attached to the ink.Talk:Vinland map Jump to given the controversial nature of some of his statements to the press.
There is actually a basic failure of the peer-review process at the heart of all this, and perhaps the next major study of the Vinland Map should focus on that. Jun 19, · In , news of the Vinland map was released to the world. The map is claimed to be a 15th-century world map that holds unique information about the Norse exploration of America.
In addition to showing Africa, Asia, and Europe, the map depicts a landmass south-west of Greenland in the Atlantic Ocean labeled as Vinland.
Jun 19, · The map is claimed to be a 15th-century world map that holds unique information about the Norse exploration of America. In addition to showing Africa, Asia, and Europe, the map depicts a landmass south-west of Greenland in the Atlantic Ocean labeled as Vinland.
Kyle Bartsch The Vinland Map: The Controversy Continues -Abstract-The Vinland Map is believed to predate Christopher Columbus’ expedition by. After years of study, the proofs of the book, The Vinland Map and the Tartar Relation,  were ready by the end of , and Mellon donated the Map to Yale.
The book was published, and the Map revealed to the world, the day before Columbus Day, This artifact, so long controversial, cannot be omitted from Vinland study.
It seems firmly accepted in Norway as a cultural artifact and is the single most constant attraction for Vinland scholars.