Answered Jun 19, View profile In ancient Sumer, the social class divisions were unique compared to what exists today or even other ancient cultures.
In the Islamic armies led by Berber north African Muslim tribesmen Tariq ibn-Ziyad crossed the straight of Gibraltar from Maghreb Morocco and rapidly advanced north onquering Visigoth Spain Germanic Christian rulers within seven years.
In establishing an Islamic state throughout the Iberian peninsula, todays Spain and Portugal combinedwhich centered in Cordoba in the heart of the peninsula. In the seventh century Spain influenced by the Roman Empire prior to the rule of the Christian Visigoths was primarily a multi-cultured society with inhabitants of different faiths mainly Christians and minority Jews.
This essay will examine and identify the relationship between the Muslim rulers after the conquest on one hand and the Christians and Jews on the other and describe the social, political and cultural changes that were to follow in the coming years and centuries.
As its written in Quran the sacred book of Islamic faithMuslims acknowledge the fact that elsewhere in the Islamic world, Jews, along with other religious minorities holding sacred books, such as Christians, were to be considered Ahl al-Kitab people of the bookand their religion to be tolerated.
In view of this fact Jews and Christians living in the Iberian Peninsula were given special legal status that allowed them to ractice their religions providing they adhered to certain Islamic social restrictions.
Although documentary evidence on the state of the Jewish communities prior to AD is not readily available, yet what evidence there are shows that during the rule of Christian Visigoth in Spain, there were hostilities towards the Jews, their numbers had visibly declined and was not far from extinction.
In contrast, at the beginning of the eighth century the Islamic legal system provided an opportunity for re- establishment of their culture and revival of their numbers. It is important to state that the embracement of Muslim rule happened after the arrival of Abdul Rahman 1st a prince of the Umayyed dynasty ruling in Damascus who escaped a bloody coup against his tamily, How would you characterize relations between out by A caliphate and arrived in A1 Andalus in AD.
At that time there had been tensions rowing within the different factions of the Berbers conquering north African nomads and splinters had begun. The Berbers resented both the Arab aristocracy and being treated as Second class citizens. Abdul Rahman was able to unite some of the Berber factions and led a decisive uprising against the corrupt governor Yusuf.
He founded the Umayyed dynasty in A1 Andalus, declared himself The Emir leadermade Cordoba his capital and ordered the construction of the magnificent Cordoba mosque which rivaled the beautiful buildings and architecture of his native Damascus.
For the next two centuries Spain along with its population of Muslims, Christians and Jews flourished under the Islamic rule and rivaled Damascus and Baghdad both culturally and economically. Scores of Christians and Jews converted to Islam and embraced the Islamic culture.
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Interfaith marriages and integration into the Islamic society enabled the followers of other religions, Christians and Jews To move up the social ladder, particularly during the rein of, Abdul Rahman 3rd r. It brought civilization of the highest order and an enormous demographic migration of Arabs, Jews, Moors and other races.
In doing so and by way of surrounding Europe with Islamic controlled territory cut the Christians off from almost all-direct interaction with other aiths and cultures. In spite of the fact that arguably life for Christians and Jews under the Islamic rule of Spain would be unacceptable in todays world, in many ways the non-Muslims of Islamic Spain at least before were tolerated better than conquered people of that period of history might have expected.
They were not forced to make a choice between converting to Islam and dying and were not enslaved nor prevented from practicing their religion except practicing it too obviously e. No evidence of segregation or living in designated areas is ound and no restrictions were placed on any particular method of earning a living.
There were Christians and Jews working in the civil service of the Islamic rulers, and despite some having to do unpleasant Jobs which were shunned by Muslims, there were Jobs in banking and dealing in precious metals especially done by Jews.
Some say the reasons for tolerating Christians and Jews were on conditions that these religious minorities accepted Islamic-power and superiority, avoided blasphemy and d d not try to convert Muslims. There were also distinct divisions in the society along ethnic and religious ines, with the Arab tribes topping the ranking, followed by Berbers and converts to Islam, and Christians and Jews at the very bottom.
The conquest of Spain by Muslims totally changed the conditions and traditions of medieval Christian population of that country.
The Christians Who took part in reclaiming Spain from Muslims were ofa different breed altogether, and learned the lessons, early and well of not exactly tolerance, in he modern understandingat least of cooperation.
That was only one of the many things which made Spain exceptional, and which the rest of Europe could have learned from it to its profit.
The Jews living under the Muslim dominion flourished.
The advantage of having a common language, near identical religious beliefs, and a common culture, with Muslims were all contributing factors to the successful integration of Jews into Muslim society.
Their numbers grew ultifold in comparison to Visigoth period when they were close to extinction, and many of them gained positions of great usefulness in society, and important influence, in government, and politics.
Looking at their interaction history with Muslims in other countries under the Islamic rule between 8th and 1 5th century and measuring it by a yardstick, the Jews produced their greatest literature, philosophical, and scientific works in Spain under the Islamic rulers.
This inspired them to cross the divide and use this model of cultural adaptation in the Europe post termination of Islamic Spain. The political influence, and intellectual achievements of the Spanish Jewry, are far better known than their social conditions.
They show us a glimpse of what a common society might look like. Their glory was their Joint accomplishment, which tragically they could not observe and preserve what made those achievements possible.Clinton aides called the relationship an "impossible embrace." A combination of factors including the mass mobilization of capital markets through neoliberalism, the beginning of the widespread proliferation of new media such as the Internet, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union led to a realignment and reconsolidation of economic and political power across the world, and within countries.
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How would you characterize the situation? I would characterize this as a positive change for our company. She had difficulty characterizing their relationship. His personality is hard to characterize.
Farms and large flat fields characterize most of the area. the beliefs that characterized Europe in the 15th century.
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