The Mercator projection was invented by Gerardus Mercator, a Flemish mapmaker.
Shapes Are Shapes Preserved?
Thus, any two lines in the map follow the same angle as the corresponding original lines on the Earth; in particular, projected graticule lines always cross at right angles a necessary but not sufficient condition.
Also, at any particular point scale is the same in all directions. It does not follow that shapes are always preserved across the map, as any conformal map includes a scaling distortion somewhere that is, scale is not the same everywhere. Any azimuthal stereographic or Mercator maps are conformal.
An aircraft taking off from Campinas would easily land in Seoul following this fixed bearing disregarding factors like traffic airlanes, wind deviation, weather, national airspaces and fuel range; actual customary routes Mercator projection map westwards but are in fact similar along the whole trip.
However, that easy route would not be the most economical choice in terms of distance, as the geodesic line shows. The same loxodrome and great circle in part of a polar azimuthal equidistant map The two paths almost coincide only in brief routes.
Although the rhumb line is much shorter on the Mercator map, an azimuthal equidistant map tells a different story, even though the geodesic does not map to a straight line since it does not intercept the projection center. Since there is a trade-off: These are true circles on Earth, which could demonstrate the theoretical range of radio waves, airplanes, or missiles; they are represented here in blue and are identical in all maps in this table.
In each pair of maps with blue shapes, the one on the left is a simple aspectwhile its right counterpart is usually an oblique aspect centered on Campinas. On the other hand, the orange lines were directly drawn as circles on a map on the left column; their true shape on the globe is presented on the right they are the same curves only for each pair of maps.
There is only one projection and aspect where both size and shape of circles are identical on globe and map. Given a proper aspect, this projection is the only correct tool for graphically finding ranges on a flat map.
A Mercator map is conformalthus preserving shapes locally but not globally. Scale changes quickly towards the top and bottom of the map, especially vertically. Also conformal, an azimuthal stereographic map preserves the shape of all circles, even those not centered on the map.
Nevertheless, their scale is not preserved: The scale is the same on the Equator and all meridians as measured on the equatorial aspect. Therefore the width and height are identical for the "circles" on the second map only.
On the other hand, horizontal distortion depends on the longitude. Circles on Earth and on Maps An interesting shape to study is the circumference, the set of points at a fixed distance from a center, and the circle, the set of points it encloses.
Since both scale and shape are often distorted, how faithfully are circles drawn on a globe translated to a map?
Or, conversely, should one draw a circle on a map with a pair of compasses, which shape does it actually represent on Earth? The circle could represent the range of a radio station, or the autonomy of a vehicle. When rangefinding, correct usage of map projections could mean the difference between a successful trip and a mayday call.MapTiler/GDAL2Tiles (the tile generator application) is following the TMS specification, because there is not any standard for tiling yet, OGC (Open Geospatial Consorcium) is working on the WMTS (Web Map Tiling Service) which is inspired by TMS.
Spherical Mercator EPSG (EPSG) and WGS84 Datum. The coordinates you use . Mapping Earth or Trapping Minds? Story of Mercator Projection. General Knowledge Fact: India is the 7th largest country in the world in terms of Geographical area.
The Mercator projection used here is one way of looking at the spherical earth as a flat map. Used since the 16th century for navigation, straight lines on this map can be used accurately as compass bearings but the size and shape of continents are distorted.
Used just about everywhere, from textbooks to Google Maps, the Mercator projection map is the way most of humanity recognizes the position and size of Earth’s continents. The Mercator Projection In , the great cartographer, Gerardus Mercator, created a revolutionary new map based on . The Peters Map is an Area Accurate projection of the earths surface.
With the traditional Mercator Map (circa , and still in use in many schoolrooms and boardrooms today), Greenland and Africa look the same size. But in reality, Africa is 14 times larger! In response to such discrepancies, Dr.
Arno Peters created a new world map that . Gerardus Mercator: Gerardus Mercator, Flemish cartographer whose most important innovation was a map, embodying what was later known as the Mercator projection, on which parallels and meridians are rendered as straight lines spaced so as to produce at any point an accurate ratio of latitude to longitude.