See Article History Opium trade, in Chinese historythe traffic that developed in the 18th and 19th centuries in which Western countries, mostly Great Britainexported opium grown in India and sold it to China. The British used the profits from the sale of opium to purchase such Chinese luxury goods as porcelain, silk, and tea, which were in great demand in the West. Opium was first introduced to China by Turkish and Arab traders in the late 6th or early 7th century ce. Taken orally to relieve tension and pain, the drug was used in limited quantities until the 17th century.
History[ edit ] Apothecary vessel for storage of opium as a pharmaceutical, Germany, 18th or 19th century The Mediterranean region contains the earliest archeological evidence of human use; the oldest known seeds date back to more than BCE in the Neolithic age  with purposes such as food, anaestheticsand ritual.
Evidence from ancient Greece indicates that opium was consumed in several ways, including inhalation of vapors, suppositories, medical poulticesand as a combination with hemlock for suicide.
Widespread medical use of unprocessed opium continued through the American Civil War before giving way to morphine and its successors, which could be injected at a precisely controlled dosage. Numerous finds of P. Opium production continued under the Babylonians and Egyptians.
Opium was used with poison hemlock to put people quickly and painlessly to death, but it was also used in medicine. Spongia somniferasponges soaked in opium, were used during surgery. By BCE, opium was cultivated on Cypruswhere surgical-quality knives were used to score the poppy pods, and opium was cultivated, traded, and smoked.
Poppies also frequently adorned statues of ApolloAsklepiosPlutoDemeterAphroditeKybele and Isissymbolizing nocturnal oblivion. Some Muslims believe hadithssuch as in Sahih Bukhariprohibits every intoxicating substance, though the use of intoxicants in medicine has been widely permitted by scholars.
The text lists medicinal effects of opium, such as analgesia, hypnosis, antitussive effects, gastrointestinal effects, cognitive effects, respiratory depression, neuromuscular disturbances, and sexual dysfunction.
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|The second Opium War||History[ edit ] Apothecary vessel for storage of opium as a pharmaceutical, Germany, 18th or 19th century The Mediterranean region contains the earliest archeological evidence of human use; the oldest known seeds date back to more than BCE in the Neolithic age  with purposes such as food, anaestheticsand ritual. Evidence from ancient Greece indicates that opium was consumed in several ways, including inhalation of vapors, suppositories, medical poulticesand as a combination with hemlock for suicide.|
|Opium Wars | Definition, Summary, Facts, & Causes | plombier-nemours.com||Tiedemann gives a survey of the factors behind the ignominious Opium Wars that the U.|
Avicenna describes several methods of delivery and recommendations for doses of the drug. In the s, laudanum was recommended for pain, sleeplessness, and diarrhea by Thomas Sydenham the renowned "father of English medicine" or "English Hippocrates", to whom is attributed the quote, "Among the remedies which it has pleased Almighty God to give to man to relieve his sufferings, none is so universal and so efficacious as opium.
Subsequently, laudanum became the basis of many popular patent medicines of the 19th century. Compared to other chemicals available to 18th century regular physicians, opium was a benign alternative to the arsenics, mercuries, or emetics, and it was remarkably successful in alleviating a wide range of ailments.
Due to the constipation often produced by the consumption of opium, it was one of the most effective treatments for cholera, dysentery, and diarrhea.
As a cough suppressant, opium was used to treat bronchitis, tuberculosis, and other respiratory illnesses. Opium was additionally prescribed for rheumatism and insomnia. Due to its sedative and tranquilizing properties, it was used to quiet the minds of those with psychosis, help with people who were considered insane, and also to help treat patients with insomnia.
Betweenandopiate addicts lived in the United States in the late 19th century and between two-thirds and three-quarters of these addicts were women.
George Beard in proposed his theory of neurastheniaa hereditary nervous system deficiency that could predispose an individual to addiction. Neurasthenia was increasingly tied in medical rhetoric to the "nervous exhaustion" suffered by many a white-collar worker in the increasingly hectic and industrialized U.
Ottoman and European testimonies confirm that from the 16th to the 19th centuries Anatolian opium was eaten in Constantinople as much as it was exported to Europe.
In the book, it is not Ottoman, nor Chinese, addicts about whom he writes, but English opium users: Coleridge began using opium in after developing jaundice and rheumatic feverand became a full addict after a severe attack of the disease inrequiring 80— drops of laudanum daily.
Opium trade became more regular by the 17th century, when it was mixed with tobacco for smoking, and addiction was first recognized.
Prior to the arrival of the tobacco pipeopium was only taken orally; when smoked, the drug has a far more potent effect, and its addictive effect is greatly magnified.
China had a positive balance sheet in trading with the British, which led to a decrease of the British silver stocks. Therefore, the British tried to encourage Chinese opium use to enhance their balance, and they delivered it from Indian provinces under British control.
A massive destruction of opium by an emissary of the Chinese Daoguang Emperor in an attempt to stop opium imports led to the First Opium War —in which Britain defeated China. Afteropium use continued to increase with widespread domestic production in China.
Byan estimated 25 percent of the male population were regular consumers of the drug.Foreign opium was first introduced by the Portuguese from Goa at the beginning of the 18th century. In , when the foreign import was chests, the Emperor Yung Ching issued the first anti-opium edict, enacting severe penalties on the sale of opium and the opening of opium-smoking divans.
An opium den in 18th-century China through the eyes of a Western artist. As a member of Parliament, Gladstone called it "most infamous and atrocious" referring to the opium trade between China and British India in plombier-nemours.com(s) of plant: Latex. Guide to sources relating to China in the India Office Records - History of the China Trade China Trade and the East India Company.
In the 18th century, the Company traded British woollens and Indian cottons for Chinese tea, porcelain, and silk. Tea imports soon became the largest single item in Britain's trading account.
The Opium Wars were two wars in the midth century involving China and the British Empire over the British trade of opium and China's sovereignty.
The clashes included the First Opium War (–) and the Second Opium War (–). The wars and events between them weakened the Qing dynasty and forced China to trade with the other parts of the world. Opium trade, in Chinese history, the traffic that developed in the 18th and 19th centuries in which Western countries, mostly Great Britain, exported opium grown in India and sold it to plombier-nemours.com British used the profits from the sale of opium to purchase such Chinese luxury goods as porcelain, silk, and tea, which were in great demand in the West.
Ancient China: The Birthplace of Tea The history of tea dates back to ancient China, almost 5, years ago. According to legend, in B.C. Emperor Shen Nung discovered tea when leaves from a wild tree blew into his pot of boiling water.