A background in math, statistics, or programming was the most common path to a career in the field. But things have changed a lot since then, with universities scrambling to meet the demand for trained data scientists by bringing specialized programs online that include the combination of statistical analysis and modeling, math, programming and data mining courses that are the hallmark of a true data science program. And unless you want to be paying down loans for the first decade of your career, scholarships are one of the best ways to make sure that education is affordable. How to Qualify for a Data Science Scholarship Every college scholarship has criteria that applicants are going to be expected to meet.
Audio Speech Melodies Human speech is made up of vowels a, e, i, o, u and consonants b, c, Science week essay competition, f, g, etc. Consonants are typically noise-like pops, bursts of air, etc. Vowel sounds are tone-like: These pitches are produced by rapid vibrations of the vocal cord.
For adult males, the fundamental frequency of voiced speech is typically in the 85 to Hz range; for adult females, it may range from to Hz.
Singing may cover a wider range. When people speak, different syllables usually have different pitches.
As with breathing, these pitch changes are generally made unconsciously. There are gender differences in vocal pitch aside from the frequency ranges involved.
Generally speaking, males tend to speak in a somewhat more monotonic way, while women tend to make more expressive use of pitch. Some women have very melodious voices. If we think of speech as having a melody, it's almost as if they're writing a song, with melody and lyrics, each time they speak.
For example, I noticed this when listening to dialogue by the mother in the movie "As Good as It Gets", and when listening to a recording called " Radical Acceptance: Guided Meditations " by Tara Brach.
In the latter recording, it seemed as if the speaker had a mental musical scale; one particular tone seemed to serve as the root or home base, with frequent excursions emphasizing the musical intervals of a fourth frequency ratio of 4: Are these music-like intervals chosen because they're easier to make, more pleasant to listen to, or do they have some kind of perhaps hard-to-define meaning?
So the basic question is, why do we use pitch modulation when we speak? Does it help transfer the information we're trying to convey?
Does it help transfer emotional information? If someone speaks with a very monotonic voice few pitch changeswe may think of their speech as "monotonous", which can mean either lacking in pitch variation, or lacking in variety and interest, i. Could one design an experiment to tell whether information content is transferred more effectively with monotonic robotic voice, normal voice, exaggerated pitch changes, or random pitch changes?
How do these types of pitch contours affect how the listener thinks of the speaker? Do they make the speaker seem more sincere or likeable? Do they make the content more or less believable?
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Why did human speech evolve to use these pitch changes? Note that some languages, such as Chinese and Vietnamese, are "tonal", in which the same word can have different meanings depending on the pitch.
In western languages, pitch changes can emphasize certain words. Often if we repeat similar or parallel phrases, we may repeat the same pitch contour, using the pitch to highlight the similarity between the concepts. In what other ways are pitch changes used?
Does the amount of pitch modulation correlate to personality, or to psychological conditions such as depression?
In songwriting, melodies are often chosen for their attractiveness, but they also need to fit the meaning of the phrase, in ways that may be difficult to define or analyze.
As a simple example, a songwriter is more likely to go up in pitch when singing the word "up", and lower in pitch for the word "down".See the winners and read their essays on the DNA Day Essay Contest Winners' Page!Congratulations to the winners and honorable mentions. Contests Resources IEA Gifted Resource Center Contest, Award & Scholarship Search Academic Competitions Imagine, Vol.
7, No. 1 SET (Study of Exceptional Talent) competition list. Affiliation Process The Membership year brings the challenge of achieving a record 35th straight year of membership growth for HOSA. Successful applicants carefully review our MBA application requirements below, and also take the time to connect with our community and learn how to use our resources to thrive.
Bard College offers a rigorous undergraduate curriculum in the liberal arts and sciences from its historic 1,acre campus in the Hudson Valley of New York State. by Judith Curry A few things that caught my eye this past week.
The coming revolution in numerical weather prediction [link] Dessler, Mauritsen and Stevens: The influence of internal variability on Earth's energy balance framework and implications for estimating climate sensitivity [link] Reduction in global area burned and wildfire emissions since s enhances carbon uptake.